Fard (فرض) – Compulsory
Fard is an act which is binding upon a person (compulsory for a person to carry out). Fard is derived from a non speculative text. Anyone that denies Fard will into Kuffar.
Wājib (واجب) – Necessary
An Act / Command which is bind on a person. It is derived from a speculative text. A person that denies wājib will not fall into Kuffar.
Sunnah Muakkadah – Emphasized Sunnah
Sunnah is the way of the Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him). Sunnah is those actions that the Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him) performed consistently and emphasizes to carry out.
e.g. 2 Rakah before fard Fardh prayer.
An individual that denies this action of Sunnah Muakkadah, will not be punished, but can approached.
Sunnah Ghair Muakkadah – Not Emphasized Sunnah
Sunnah Ghair Muakkadah are those acts that the Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him) did not perform habbittaly. The acts would be performed at times and also missed at times. There was no such fixed habit.
e.g. 4 Rakhah before the fard of Asr prayer
Haram (حَرَام) – Forbidden
Harma is a command of abstinence from a particular action. The act is forbidden in Islam Law, and sinful, the act displeases Allah (SWT).
e.g. Drinking wine.
The rulings are derived from a clear cut text (non speculative).
Makruh (مكروه) – Disliked
There are two types of Makruh.
1. Makruh Tahrimi: Makruh Tahrimi is derived from speculative text, it is an act close to Haram, but not clearly forbidden in Islamic Law.
A person that does an act of Makruh Tahrimi will be sinful.
2. Makruh Tanzihi: Makruh Tanzihi is closer to Hallal, it is an act not completely forbidden nor completely recommended. An individual that stays away from Makruh Tanzihi will be rewarded, and if an individual carries out an act which is Makruh Tanzihi will not be sinful.
Those actions which the Shariah has not shown any encouragement and consideration to. Actions which are permissible, although there is no command for it. Carrying out such actions one does not receive any reward nor they are sinful. Such as eating and drinking.